【英語でエッセイを書く】例文・流れ・ポイント

英語

・2,000字前後の英語のエッセイの例文を読みたい

・英語のエッセイの流れを知りたい

・英語でエッセイを書く時のポイントを知りたい


そんなキミにお勧めです。

※英語初心者が読み進めても全く意味不明となるためお勧めしません。

先日の記事から出来上がった最終版エッセイを今日は公開したいと思います。

アカデミックジャーナルのブレイクダウンの例はこちら⇩

この記事は英語をほぼ3か月でマスターし、現在は英語講師として国内外で自由に働くRiokaが書いています。オーストラリアの大学卒、TOEICは900点以上、IELTSテストでは7.5を取得、塾講師、家庭教師として実績あり、海外勤務歴7年。話せる英語力アップに貢献しています。

※参考にしていただいても、コピペしてもらってもいいけど、そのままコピペすると学校に必ずばれますのでリフレーズしてください!!!

エッセイの形だけでも参考になれば幸いです。

またエッセイはネイティブチェック済です。

課題

Is bribery acceptable under some circumstances?(状況によっては贈収賄は許されるのか?)

エッセイ本文

Bribery has a long history that has happening everywhere whether it can be seen or not. Bribery act has obtained more attentions recently, becoming a severe problem in the world. In general terms, it is not a right thing to be involved in bribery. However, it seems bribery has been constantly active in some countries for many reasons. ‘Is bribery acceptable under some circumstances?’ – answering to this question is the objection of this essay. Has it ever been acceptable? If so which extent and what kind of circumstances, to who by whom? Research and analyse as wide and deep as possible of the present-day literature within this topic range. However, bribery is such a border topic, so that in this essay, focus on cultural differences which makes different view of bribery, and discuss how the bribery act is treated in a different way between in diverse countries such as developed and developing countries. Some organisations which are relevant for this topic are provided for application of theories and discussion. And lastly, provide example situations where bribery has seems to be acceptable followed by difficulties of enforcement of law for bribery act.

贈収賄には見えていても見えいなくてもどこでも起こっていて長い歴史がある。最近では贈収賄行為が注目を集め、世界的に深刻な問題となっている。一般的には、贈収賄に関わることは正しいことではない。だが一部の国では、様々な理由から贈収賄が後を絶たないようだ。「贈収賄は、ある状況下では許容されるのか」-この問いへの回答が本論の論点である。贈収賄が許容されたことはあるのか?もしそうだとしたら、どの程度、どのような状況下で、誰が、誰に贈ったのか?このトピックの範囲内で、現代の文献をできるだけ広く深く研究・分析した。しかし、贈収賄は国境を越えたテーマであるため、この小論文では、贈収賄に対する見方が異なる文化の違いに焦点を当て、先進国と発展途上国のような多様な国で贈収賄行為がどのように扱われているかを議論していく。また、理論の応用や議論のために、このトピックに関連する組織をいくつか挙げている。最後に、贈収賄が許容されていると思われる状況と、贈収賄行為に対する法の執行の難しさを例示する。

Rioka
Rioka

イントロダクションの部分では自分かこれから書く内容をはっきり述べること。そのときに焦点を当てる部分、逆に当てない部分を述べる。

Oxford dictionaries defines bribe as ‘Persuade (someone) to act in one’s favour by a gift of money or other inducement’. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (here after referred to as OECD) stated that bribery is “waste” (OECD, 2015). According to surveys on more than 130,000 companies in 135 countries, the estimation of bribes is paid annually is $1 trillion USD in the current world. (The World Bank, 2015).

Rioka
Rioka

エッセイにI(わたしは~)というのは全く必要ない。むしろ入れてはいけません。

アカデミックジャーナルをもとにリフレーズしていって事実を淡々と述べるだけ。

The example of ‘waste’ might be Enron scandal – One of the biggest fraud in US history. The giant energy company Enron paid to their accountants (Arthur Andersen) up to one hundred million US dollars a year. Accountants kept hiding company’s losses which led the delayed of bankruptcy (BBC NEWS, 2003). There is no clear line between bribery act or not. However, high remuneration made the accountants kept their mouth shut and misused of their position to return the favour in this case. Enron’s failure influenced critically across the world. Thousands of employees lost retirement savings and investors did pension funds. Another case is the most significant event recently happened to The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) that have been suspected of bribery for many years. A total of 14 people, including two vice-president was charged with bribery act for receiving the commercial rights and including the broadcasting rights of the World Cup (Morgenstein, 2015). This news shocked not only employees and soccer fans but also many people across the world. FIFA is such a huge organisation, so that the impact on market cannot be measured. Two cases explain well that bribery destroys company’s reputation, and the industry as well.

Rioka
Rioka

述べたい事例があったら、その事例に関してのジャーナルを数点探しておくとよい。

もしくはジャーナルで紹介されている事例を使う。

1つのジャーナルで何個もトピックが立てれる。

Lord (2014) proves that regardless of business structure which are centralised and decentralised business structure, people in advanced countries such as UK or Germany consider bribery as a corruption, and an enforcement of criminal law should be improved. 

When bribery affects many people significantly, it seems one of the largest issues in economy which leads to reduction of efficiency and increase of inequality. Because bribery is beyond of moral and ethics issue (OECD, 2015), it should not be acceptable, and all must try to eliminate bribery as a whole (Kemp, 2014).

Rioka
Rioka

反対の立場での意見も用意しておくと、エッセイに深みがまし、得点につながる。

Notwithstanding of strict regulations in Western countries, bribe still can be seen differently in other non-Western countries, and bribery act can be seen as ‘exchange’ like bribe has numerous nicknames in the world. For instance, ‘little souvenir’ in Japanese, ‘relationship’ in Kenya, Filipinos calls it ‘inner obligation’ and Chinese make ‘connections’ with it (Shaw and et al, 2014).These expressions indicate that every culture has diverse view of bribery. Giving gifts or money to the clients, suppliers, customers, or even to public servants can be a key for successful business in some countries. Nolasco, Sevillano, and et al (2014) collected primary data regarding bribery from public transport drivers to the public servants in the Philippines. Despite of the drivers think it is not fair, but the money save their time and energy, even their jobs at the end. This case shows that when there is no regulations, and income is unable to satisfy basic needs, people tend to bribe. Moreover, society accept the existence of bribery (Sutherland, 2015), therefore, the reputation of the organisation does not hurt as much as when bribery-act was disclosed in advanced nations.

Rioka
Rioka

最初のイントロダクションから絶対にぶれないようにする。

自分が何を書いてるか分からなくならないように、計画してから書き始めること

Cultural difference is affecting bribery as it is mentioned above, how about when the cultures intergrade? Hutchings (2002) red-flags that not having enough understanding of the fundamental cultural difference of country may lead organisations cause of irreparable damage to nations. Bierstaker (2009) argues from different view that people are not trading their arm’s length nowadays because of higher technology gives them convenience. Because they cannot see people on the other side, the difference of each culture are tend to be forgotten. Akbar, Y., Vujic, V(2014) point out that people continue to carry their culture to the mainstream. The culture with a low anti-bribery tradition remains, but the one with high –bribery-acceptable tradition also persist in the society.

In the business scene, corporations are becoming global as national borders are no longer recognisable by popularisation of internet and they strive for more profit through operations in low-cost countries (Brody, 2009). Where multinational corporations try to enter the market, they often face bribery issue. Either International organisations offer bribes to have less restrictions, effort and time to maximise their profit, or they may be offered to pay the bribe to operate in their countries (Windsor, 2013). Besides, bribery may be legal when there is no prohibitive laws. Because of trade rules are based on unfair. If they refuse to bribe, they are unable to do well in the certain market while their competitors obtaining benefits. Shaw, Barry, and et al (2015) support that the concept of ‘cultural relativism’ stands out when they do business in host countries, which means because ethics and standards are different in different countries, international firms should accept and adopt local’s culture. The corporations as their guests should not intrude own culture and perception on the local’s. Does it mean that an organisation should pay bribe to operate in a country where bribe has been ingrained? Windsor (2013) answers that even though there might be no legal obligations, but multinational corporations have responsibility to act ethically.

Bribery is one of social behaviour to be successful, because people live in capitalism. Bribe can be paid when market and companies are privately owned, and economic is operated in private hands. For example, the liberalisation of telecommunications in Kenya opened investors across the world to bribe millions to get the licence to operate. (Sutherland, 2015) This results suggest that capitalism might lead the corruption worse. There is an old saying ‘Every man has his price’. It is the sense that there is a price for each people to acquire, and people move as he likes by giving the bribe. These sayings from the past tell that human are weak to money regardless of all ages and countries. This also can be explained by one of the feature of capitalism; humans are self-interest and wealth maximisers, therefore elimination of bribery totally is challenging.

Rioka
Rioka

BODYの部分で気を付けるポイントは前後につながりを持たせるということ。文章のフローを大切に。

Bribery act occurs under soft law or even no law (Chatterjee, 2014). However, it is not easy to detect bribery act and difficult to press charge for that with current system. Johns (2012) suggests all the corporations should follow principles of The Bribery Act, and put effort to prevent bribery act by especially educating employees. Kemp (2014) adds that leaders of organisations also need to act as a whole to improve the state of company since they have power to regulate the system and change the culture of their own company. One of the example is the creation of safe environment for employees to disclose unethical practices. Papadakis (2015) pointed that in Australia, there have been only two cases which were prosecuted regarding of bribery since the year of the registration was introduced in 1999. The OECD criticised the lack of enforcement of Australia’s laws for international bribery cases. Rangan (2015) argues that punishment should be tougher for particularly corporations which have higher corporate social responsibility as they set the rules for society. Kinder, Lydenberg, and Domini scores which is the most common measurement to judge how well organisation take corporate social responsibility (Higher the scores are, better CSR performances) shows that there is still an embarrassing characteristic is that corporations that have higher scores receive less punishment for bribery.  ——argues that government should play its role to reduce or try to eliminate citizens to either offer or accept bribery.

Yet, it is not easy for countries such as India and The Philippines where corruption and bribery are common. The reasons are; bribery is the main income for most of public servants, some people cannot afford basic needs without money from bribery, weak economic condition, and the punishment for bribery act is seen as ‘bad luck’ (Brody, 2009). This is why bribery has been acceptable for those country. However, people in the world is getting more aware of bribery scandals (Windsor, 2013). A multinational drug company GSK pleaded guilty for paying bribes to suppliers in China to use their products last year. According to Financial times, their sales decreased by 61 percent in China (Meier, 2013).

Social contract theory explain this situation. Person’s moral is depended on what society accept or not.

In conclusion, It is not simple to answer yes or no for the question -‘Is bribery acceptable under some circumstances?’ as bribery is a border issue that has no clear definition under different cultures, ether no sharp line between legal or not. The consequences of bribery act such as increasing of inequality and decreasing of distrust of government are significant.

Because of culture diverse, enforcement of regulations and laws, and system of economy, bribery has been treated as differently and acceptable by some people in mostly underdeveloped countries where corruptions are rampant. An organisation will face dilemma of bribery act as globalisation of the world. It is important to harmonise the difference of cultures by using ‘balanced approach’ to negotiate, or ‘problem-solving-oriented’ approach to perform differently depending on situation (Liu, 2015). In addition, act ethically is its huge responsibility. However, uncountable issues behind of bribery act should not be forgotten. Elimination of the issues might lead of decline bribery act. Moreover, People are seeking ethical act more and more so that number of bribery will gradually reduce in the future.

Rioka
Rioka

読み手にとって「最後のまとめだよ!」と分かりやすくするために最後はIn conclusionでスタートさせる。

レファレンス(REFERENCES)

BBC NEWS 2003, viewed 31 Aug 2015, <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2756345.stm>

Hutchings,K, 2002, ‘Improving selection processes but providing marginal support: a review of cross-cultural difficulties for expatriates in Australian organisations in China’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 9, Issue 3, pp.32 – 57

Rangan,S., 2015, Performance and Progress: Essays on Capitalism, Business, and Society, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom

Brody,R., and Luo,R., 2009, ‘Fraud and white‐collar crime: a Chinese perspective’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 16 Issue 3, pp.317 – 326

Akbar, Y., Vujic, V, 2014, ‘Explaining corruption: The role of national culture and its implications for international management’, Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 21 Issue 2, pp.191 – 218

Bierstaker, J, 2009, ‘Differences in attitudes about fraud and corruption across cultures: Theory, examples and recommendations’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 16 Issue 3, pp.241 – 250

Papadakis,M., 2015, Bribery cases point to weak Australian law, Financial Review, viewed 1 Sep 2015, <http://www.afr.com/business/legal/bribery-cases-point-to-weak-australian-laws-20150324-1m6un2>

Chatterjee, I., Ray, R., 2014, ‘Crime, corruption and the role of institutions’, Indian Growth and Development Review, Vol. 7 Issue1, pp.73-95

Jones, M., 2012, ‘The truth about the Bribery Act’, Strategic Direction, Vol. 28 Issue 1

Kemp, H , 2014, ‘Supporting staff to fight corruption: Companies rise to the challenge by setting the right example’, Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp.33-36

Morgenstein,M, 2015, FIFA investigating if bribes influenced World Cup bid process viewed 1 Sep 2015, < http://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/07/football/fifa-scandal/>

Meier, B., 2013, Glaxo Sales Fall in China as Inquiry Continues, The New York Times, viewed 1 Sep 2015, <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/24/business/international/glaxosmithkline-earnings-hit-by-slumping-china-sales.html?_r=0>

Liu, L., 2015,  ‘The global anti-bribery collaboration in evolution: A systematic analysis of historical puzzles and key contemporary questions’, Journal of Financial Crime, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp.264-294.

Lord, N., 2014, ‘Responding to transnational corporate bribery using international frameworks for enforcement: Anti-bribery and corruption in the UK and Germany’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol.14, pp100-120.

Nolasco,L., Sevillano, K., Regala, A., Tieng, D., 2014, ‘Street-based Corruption in the Philippines: Motives, Ethical Considerations and Organizational Context’, Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, Vol. 26, Issue 1-2, pp145-160
(Nolasco et al. 2014)

Sutherland, E., 2015, ‘Bribery and corruption in telecommunications: the case of Kenya’, info, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp.38-57

Shaw, W., Barry, V., Issa, T., and Catle, B., 2013, Moral Issues in Business: 2nd Asia Pacific Edition, 2nd Edn, Cengage Learning Australia PTY LTD

Windsor, D., 2013, International Business, Corruption, and Bribery, in Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Liam Leonard (ed.) International Business, Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol 11,  pp.65 – 95

英語でエッセイを書く時に大切なこと。

今から大事なことを言います。

エッセイを書くのには膨大な時間がかかります。

書かなければいけない方はやり始めましょう。

課題をしっかり読み込み、どうすれば高得点が出せるのかしっかりと分析し、理解した上でとりかかるのが大切です。

計画が大切です。

そして、書き終えたらすぐに提出せずに、一晩、二晩寝かせて朝に読み返すとまた手直しする箇所がみえてくるでしょう。

英語がキミよりも得意な友達、ネイティブに一度読んでもらい英語のミスを直してもらいましょう。

書き終えるまでは「こんなの無理。やりたくない。」と思うこともありますが、絶対書けます!

Make it count!!!

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